Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering <p>The scope of MJEE is ranging from mathematical foundation to practical engineering design in all areas of electrical engineering. The editorial board is international and original unpublished papers are welcome. The journal is devoted primarily to research papers, but very high quality survey and tutorial papers are also published. There is no publication charges for authors.</p> Majlesi Branch, Islamic Azad University en-US Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering 2345-377X High Performance Low Latency 16×16 bit Booth Multiplier using Novel 4-2 Compressor Structure <p class="MJEE-Abstract">In this article, the design procedure of a low latency Booth multiplier has been proposed. With the help of a novel 4-2 compressor, a high-performance 16×16 bit Booth multiplier has been implemented, which depicts high operating frequency. To achieve this, the proposed 4-2 compressor has been utilized successively in the Partial Product Reduction Tree (PPRT) of the multiplier and by means of radix-4 Booth scheme, the multiplier has been designed. The Partial Product (PP) generation circuitry is also based on the other work published by the authors which enables the designed structure to work at the frequency of 350MHz. The main advantage of the designed compressor is the elimination of the middle stage inverters between cascaded blocks of PPRT which considerably enhances the speed of whole system. Simulation results for TSMC 0.18µm CMOS technology and 1.8V power supply have been demonstrated to confirm the correct operation of proposed 4-2 compressor. According to the results, the achieved delay of the critical path for hard test and high capacitive load, equal to 100fF, is 936ps while a power consumption of 255.15µW has been achieved at the operating frequency of 100MHZ.</p> Ali Rahnamaei Azadeh Kiani Sarkaleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 1 9 Optimal Power Generation from Bagasse in a Sugarcane Plant using PSO Algorithm Compared to SQP Algorithm <p>Due to the high amounts of sugarcane residue or bagasse which was produced by sugarcane plants in Iran, this study was aimed to optimize power generation from bagasse biomass in sugarcane plants using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm by data obtained from several case studies which had been simulated with SQP (Sequential quadratic programming) algorithm. In these studies, bagasse containing 50% moisture content (MC) alone or with fossil fuels, as well as bagasse with a moisture content of 40% and 30% with fossil fuels were used. Optimization values showed that 20% decrease in bagasse’s MC caused 55.6% increase in power generation efficiency, 36.3% reduction in gas emissions as well as 100% bagasse saving. PSO showed similar results to SQP and it seems that it is a proper algorithm than SQP. Therefore, if the bagasse is more dried by solar energy to lower MC, the greater efficiency of power generation is obtained.</p> Mohammad Askari Khanabadi Imaneh Dehghani Shahrokh Shojaeian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 11 16 An Enhanced Evolutionary Algorithm for Providing Energy Management Schedule in the Smart Distribution Network <p>Penetration of distributed generation resources including wind power and solar photovoltaic units in distribution system has been increased, and it is important to examine their impact on the distribution systems’ operation in term of reliability. In this paper, the multi-objective dynamic feeder reconfiguration is introduced as an efficient approach for providing an energy management schedule in the distribution grid considering energy loss and energy not supplied as the objective functions in the presence of renewable energy sources and capacitor units. In addition, the effect of uncertainty related to power demand is considered in the evaluations. To this end, an enhanced particle swarm optimization algorithm is provided in this paper, the proposed approach is applied to the 33-node testing system.</p> Hossein Lotfi Amir Safaei Nikooei Ali Asghar Shojaei Reza Ghazi Mohammad Bagher Naghibi Sistani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 17 23 A New hybrid Method for Noise Robust Estimation of Image Fractal Dimension <p>This paper presents a modified model to calculate the fractal dimension of digital images. The estimation of fractal dimensions is crucial to fractal analysis and is popularly carried out through methods based on box counting. The problem with these approaches is that, most of them do not remove the potential effects of noise on fractal dimensions properly. Accordingly, this study examines the effects of three different type of noises on fractal dimensions by using different images taken from Background image database. The examination shows that the fractal dimensions change Significantly, after noise adding, so we put forward a noise-robust and efficient fractal dimension calculation method Which is a combination of two methods, the gray-level co-matrix algorithm and improved box counting method. The results of experiments on the Background image dataset confirm the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method.</p> Saviz Ebrahimi Farbod Setoudeh Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 25 34 Stable Linear Bilateral Teleoperation System Employing an Impedance Control Via Estimated External Forces <p class="MJEE-Abstract">We propose a new impedance control algorithm for delayed linear bilateral teleoperation systems. In the presented control strategy, with regard to a preferred impedance model for the master and slave robots, a special dynamic feature at the human and the master robot along with the slave robot and environment interface is proposed. In addition, external forces signals including operator and remote environmental forces are used in the controller to attain desired impedance model. A force estimation scheme is presented to remove measurement of external forces. Then, the desired impedance model is located into an appropriate sliding-mode control scheme to compensate the parameters uncertainties emerged by external force estimation errors. Then, the absolute stability criterion is used to investigate the stability of the closed-loop teleoperation system along with transparency. Consequently, the control strategy is implemented on 1-DOF robotic system as the master and slave robots. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the presented impedance controller by using estimated external forces.</p> Seyed Hamid Tabatabaei Amir Hossein Zaeri Mohammad Vahedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 35 42 Real-time Stability Assessment of Power System using ANN without Requiring Expert Experience <p>Nowadays, power systems should be operated in the highest level of utilization and near their stability limits because of economic reasons. So stability assessment of the power system to determine the stability limits has been always considered. In SCADA/EMS systems a constant value called security margin and steady-state stability limit are used to determine transient stability limit instead of time-domain simulation. The security margin that is almost constant for power systems is determined experimentally. In this article this constant is computed using a probabilistic neural network and this method is implemented on IEEE 39 bus. As a result, the performance of this neural network is suitable for this application.</p> Hamid Ghadiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 43 49 A New Family of Soft Single Switched DC-DC Converters with Lossless Passive Snubber <p>In this paper, a novel lossless snubber is introduced that provides ZVS conditions for both On and Off instant of converter switches. On one hand, the energy of the snubber is optimally transmitted to the output so that no significant losses are imposed on the converter. Since the converter diodes are switched off as ZCS, the reverse recovery problem is reduced. In this paper, the proposed snubber circuit is applied to a conventional boost converter and an 80W sample is constructed in the laboratory to prove the performance and theoretical analysis. Furthermore, in order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed snubber on the reduction of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), the EMI value of the boost converter with the proposed snubber has been compared with the conventional boost converter, which shows a decrease of 10dBμV.</p> Shabnam Nasr Esfahani Majid Delshad Mohhamad Bagher Tavakoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 51 59 Design and Development of High-Precision Hybrid Controller for Ultra-Precision Non-Conventional Single-Point Diamond Turning Processes <p>Ultra-High precision Single-Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) is a widely used machining technology for generation components with optical grade surfaces. SPDT has been widely used in different industry sectors including aerospace, biomedical, military, defense, electronics, and entertainment. By using SPDT, manufacturing of optical surfaces with roughness down to one nanometer, even less than one nanometer, is possible. Recently, the application of non-conventional SPDT techniques during SPDT for improving the outcome of the process has been emerging. Non-conventional machining techniques have been developed and used during SPDT for assisting the process from different capacities. It has been revealed that by using a sole or a combination of non-conventional techniques during SPDT, superior results in terms of optical surface roughness and surface profile accuracy could be obtained. However, non-conventional SPDT technologies are novel solutions and more research need to be undertaken in terms of optimizing these processes and improving their performance. In this study, a novel high-precision hybrid controller is designed and developed for using in non-conventional SPDT processes. The proposed hybrid controlled has the capability of automatically and precisely control different non-conventional machining techniques during the diamond turning process. This controller could be used in a hybrid SPDT platform for controlling implemented machining techniques and synchronizing them. In addition, this hybrid controller could connect to on-machine metrology devices for in-process data acquisition, analyzing process parameters, and determining machining conditions. Thus, in-process tuning of the working parameters is possible. Results of simulations and experimental study have shown the functionality of the developed controller with sufficient precision to be used in such ultra-precision non-conventional SPDT processes.</p> Shahrokh Hatefi Khaled Abou-El-Hossein ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 61 70 A Taxonomy-based Comparison of FTTH Network Implementation Costs <p>Hundreds of millions of homes worldwide already Have Fiber to The Home (FTTH) broadband connections since this technology holds many advantages over current technologies. The need for higher bandwidth by customers persists the network providers to upgrade their networks. The FTTH is the use of fiber optic cords to deliver communications signals from an operator’s central network to individual houses, buildings, residences, and changing old copper infrastructures in order to provide higher bandwidth to customers. Recently NG-PON capabilities has opened new approach in optical fiber networks creation, operators are trying to use a single infrastructure in access layer for fixed and mobile (4G/5G) services. However, the FTTH implementation is challenging for network operators in consideration of a large amount of investment, including Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) and Operational Expenditure (OPEX). The review and classification of the most relevant approaches about cost reduction of FTTH implementation is done in this paper based on a novel taxonomy.</p> Mohammadreza Asgarirad Mansour Nejati Jahromi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 71 80 Novel m-PSO Optimized LQR Control Design for Flexible Link Manipulator: An Experimental Validation <p>Recently, robotic manipulators are the key industry requirement. These have find the importance to enhance the productivity as well as accuracy. Furthermore, industries are also moving towards the use of Flexible Link Manipulator (FLM) owing to their unique characteristics i.e. light weight, high speed operations, and the larger workspace. The FLM system has flexibility of link that causes vibrations and oscillations which affect adversary to the performance of robotic arm. The performance of FLM system is measured w.r.t. minimum error and oscillations in trajectory tracking. In this research paper, an attempt has been made to overcome the complications of FLM system. A full state feedback Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), is designed for FLM. It is observed that the designed controller can enhance the accuracy of the robotic arm, while reducing oscillations and vibrations. In addition, to enhance the performance of controller and to reduce the hassle in terms of selecting the parameter of Q matrix in LQR, modified particle swarm optimization (m-PSO) is used. The effectiveness of designed controller is simulated in MATLAB. Further, the validation of designed controller is tested on hardware FLM device. The results obtained from the simulation and hardware are compared.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Naveen Kumar Jyoti Ohri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 81 92 Stochastic Wind-Thermal Power Plants Integrated Multi-Objective Optimal Power Flow <p>The recent state of electrical system comprises the conventional generating units along with the sources of renewable energy. The suggested article recommends a method for the solution of single and multi-objective optimal power flow, incorporating wind energy with traditional coal-based generating stations. In this article, the two thermal power plants are replaced with the wind power plants. The techno-economic analysis are done with this state of electrical system. In proposed work, Weibull probability distribution functions is used for calculating wind power output. A non-dominated sorting based multi-objective moth flame optimization technique is used for the optimization issue. The fuzzy decision-making approach is applied for extracting the best compromise solution. The results are authenticated though modified IEEE-30 bus test system, which is combined with wind and thermal generating plants.</p> Sundaram Bharatbhai Pandya Hitesh R. Jariwala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 93 110 Comparison of Two Approaches of Resolving Power Sharing Error in Droop Based DC Microgrids <p>DC microgrids have gained extensive attention in the recent years. In the islanded mode of operation power sharing between sources is required. The power sharing usually is provided by employing P-V droop characteristics while the voltage local property results in power sharing error. In this paper two decentralized approaches for resolving power sharing error are studied and compared. In the first approach, sources employ proper virtual resistance. In second approach, droop characteristics are realized in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). It is shown that by using second approach, the voltage drop is reduced and equally the voltage quality is improved. It is discussed that the reason is bypassing the voltage drop associated with the sources output resistance in the second approach. Time domain simulations of a test DC microgrid are provided to verify the results.</p> Hooman Khamooshpoor Mehdi Baharizadeh Mohammad Hossein Ershadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 111 115 Design of Multi-Wavelength Low-Level Laser Therapy Device for Assisting Bone Reconstruction Applications <p>One of the main focus areas in human body reconstruction is the regeneration of bone tissue in different body zones by using various reconstruction applications. In the last two decades, different efforts have been undertaken for developing new bone reconstruction methods, and supporting techniques for stimulating bone healing mechanisms. It has been shown that during different Bone Reconstruction Applications (BRA), the presence of laser light could enhance the bone regeneration and healing mechanisms, while shortening the treatment time and improving the quality of newly formed bone tissue. The application of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has recently been used for new bone reconstruction applications in different body parts, including the tibia, fibula, femur, humerus, radius, and mandible. It was shown that by applying a low-power laser light during the bone healing procedure in different treatments, an improved quality of regenerated bone tissue was evident, while accelerating bone healing mechanisms. However, only a few studies have been performed with regard to the development of specific LLLT devices for such advanced bone reconstruction procedures. More research needs to be done towards developing an ideal LLLT device to be used in different bone reconstruction techniques. The purpose of this research is to design a novel multi-wavelength LLLT device with controllable laser light intensity. In addition, by using such a mechanism, generating the laser light in single- and multi-wavelengths in predetermined working sequences is possible. The design specifications and simulation results have shown that the proposed system is functional while meeting all required specifications in terms of generating a single- or multi-wavelength laser light, with controllable power intensity. Therefore, in future developments, the proposed system could be used during BRA for assisting the treatment.</p> Toktam Jafarpour Farouk Smith ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 117 125 MODE: A Multi-Objective Strategy for Dynamic Task Scheduling through Elastic Cloud Resources <p>Cloud computing is introduced as a high-performance computing environment that manages a variety of&nbsp;virtualized resources. One of the major aspects of cloud computing is its dynamic scheduling of great number of task requests that are submitted by users. Cloud data centers in addition to implementing these tasks, should meet the conflicting multiple requirements of different users. Minimizing makespan and deadline violation on a great number of tasks are difficult while costs are reduced. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-objective strategy for dynamic task scheduling through elastic cloud resources (MODE) is proposed, where an algorithm is proposed to construct individual non-dominated sets of new received tasks. These non-dominated sets are sorted in different levels through a new crowding distance of the individuals. In addition, an elastic resource provisioning based on the maximum available VMs’ load is proposed to provide resources in a dynamic manner. The total cost, makespan, and the deadline violations are reduced by 85.84%, 58.03%, and 47.77%, respectively, and the utilization of virtual machines is increased up to 53.2% through this strategy when compared to its counterparts.</p> Mina Yazdanbakhsh Reihaneh Khorsand Motlagh Isfahani Mohammadreza Ramezanpour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 14 2 127 141