Gain and Bandwidth Improvement of a Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA) by Using of Metamaterial Structures
AbstractUsing metamaterials on the top of the antenna’s accordance to magneto-dielectric superstrate and near zero refraction index theories causes improvement of radiation efficiency and gain of antennas. In this article, two novel metamaterial unit cells are proposed for gain and bandwidth improvement of Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA). The first metamaterial unit cell is a negative magnetic structure including two rings implemented on both sides of RT/doroid 5880 substrate with dielectric constant of 2.2. Besides, the second metamaterial unit cell is a Double Negative Structure (DNG) realized consisting of two rings printed in one side and a thin wire in other side of RT/doroid 5880 substrate. Two 7 7 arrays of proposed unit cells are considered and used as superstrate layers on the top of a CDRA. Also, the CDRA is made of RT/doroid 6010 material with dielectric constant of 10.2 working at the frequency of 10 GHz. Using proposed metamaterial structures as superstrate layers on the top of the CDRA causes gain and bandwidth improvement up to 3.3 dB and 4.8%, respectively. CDRA in the presence of proposed metamaterial superstrates are analyzed using a 3D full-wave simulator.
 S. Long, M. McAllister, and L. Shen, “The resonant cylindrical dielectric cavity antenna,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 406-412, 1983.
 M. McAllister, S. Long, and G. Conway, “Rectangular dielectric resonator antenna,” Electronics Letters, vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 218-219, 1983.
 M. McAllister and S. Long, “Resonant hemispherical dielectric antenna,” Electronics Letters, vol. 20, No. 16, pp. 657-659, 1984.
 A. Ittipiboon, R. Mongia, Y. Antar, P. Bhartia, and M. Cuhaci, “Aperture fed rectangular and triangular dielectric resonators for use as magnetic dipole antennas,” Electronics Letters, vol. 29, No. 23, pp. 2001-2002, 1993.
 H. K. Ng, K. W. Leung, “Frequency tuning of the dielectric resonator antenna using a loading cap,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 1229-1232, 2005.
 M. Niroo-Jazi, T. A. Denidni, “Experimental investigations of a novel ultra-wideband dielectric resonator antenna with rejection band using hybrid techniques,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, vol. 11, pp. 492-495, 2012.
 D. Guha, B. Gupta, C. Kumar, Y. M. M. Antar, “Segmented hemispherical DRA: new geometry characterized and investigated in multi-element composite forms for wideband antenna applications,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 1605-1610, 2012.
 M. Ranjbar-Nikkhah, J. Rashed-Mohassel, A. Kishk, “A low sidelobe and wideband series-fed dielectric resonator antenna array,” in 21st Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEE), Mashhad, Iran, May 2013, pp. 1-3.
 W. M. Abdel-Wahab, D. Busuioc, S. Safavi-Naeini, “Millimeter-wave high radiation efficiency planar waveguide series-fed dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) array: analysis, design, and measurements,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, No. 8, pp. 2834-2843, 2011.
 A. Petosa, S. Thirakoune, “Rectangular dielectric resonator antenna with enhanced gain,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, No. 4, pp. 1385-1389, 2011.
 A. Buerkle, K. Sarabandi, H. Mosallaei, “Compact slot and dielectric resonator antenna with dual-resonance, broadband characteristics,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 1020-1027, 2005.
 W. M. Abdel-Wahab, D. Busuioc, S. Safavi-Naeini, “Low cost planar waveguide technology-based dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) for millimeter-wave application: analysis, design and fabrication,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 2499-2507, 2010.
 M. Ranjbar-Nikkhah, J. Rashed-Mohassel, A. Kishk, “Compact low-cost phased array of dielectric resonator antenna using parasitic elements and capacitor loading,” IEEE Trans, Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 2318-2321, 2013.
 F N. Engheta and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Eds. Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations,” Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2006, pp., 123–138.
 H. Attia, L. Yousefi, M. M. Bait-Suwailam, M. S. Boybay, and O. M. Ramahi, “Enhanced-Gain microstrip antenna using engineered magnetic superstrates,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letter, vol. 8, pp. 1198-1201, 2009.
 H. Attia, O. Siddiqui, L. Yousefi, O. M. Ramahi, “Metamaterial for gain enhancement of printed antennas: theory, measurement and optimization,” in Saudi International Electronics, Communications and Photonics Conference (SIECPC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Apr. 2011, pp. 1-6.
 D. Smith, D. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Physical Review E, vol. 71, No. 3, p. 036617, 2005.