Random Modeling of Optimal Economic, Security and Environmental Operation of Micro-grid by Managing Responsive Loads and Charging and Discharging Electric Vehicles
AbstractThe micro-grid operator must provide the energy required by its customers at the lowest cost and consider issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and security. The operator is faced with a multi-objective optimization problem in which customer demand must be provided at the lowest cost and safely. This research provides a new energy management system for islanded micro-grids. The small size of the islanded micro-grids, the high level of intermittent operation and the low inertia of distributed generation of inverter energy production resources make the frequency and voltage security two vital factors in the energy management system, which must be managed alongside economic-environmental policies. In this study, two practical tools are provided to help with the optimal operation and increase the profitability of the micro-grid operator. The first tool is the optimal and managed use of the V2G mode of electric vehicles. In the proposed approach, not only the penetration of electric vehicles in the network is managed but also this equipment is used to solve some of the network's challenges. The second tool is responsive loads and demand response programs in order to achieve the goals of the micro-grid operator. Covering the uncertainty of renewable energy sources by responsive loads, and how to model a demand response program in a micro-grid, are followed in this study. The strategy pursued several goals, including reducing energy and load costs, reducing the cost of charging EVs, and improving network parameters and security, such as voltage and frequency. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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