Stable Linear Bilateral Teleoperation System Employing an Impedance Control Via Estimated External Forces
AbstractWe propose a new impedance control algorithm for delayed linear bilateral teleoperation systems. In the presented control strategy, with regard to a preferred impedance model for the master and slave robots, a special dynamic feature at the human and the master robot along with the slave robot and environment interface is proposed. In addition, external forces signals including operator and remote environmental forces are used in the controller to attain desired impedance model. A force estimation scheme is presented to remove measurement of external forces. Then, the desired impedance model is located into an appropriate sliding-mode control scheme to compensate the parameters uncertainties emerged by external force estimation errors. Then, the absolute stability criterion is used to investigate the stability of the closed-loop teleoperation system along with transparency. Consequently, the control strategy is implemented on 1-DOF robotic system as the master and slave robots. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the presented impedance controller by using estimated external forces.
 Uddin R and Ryu J "Predictive Control Approaches for Bilateral Teleoperation" Annual Reviews in Control 42, pp. 82-99, 2016.
 Sharifi M, Salarieh H, Behzadipour S and Tavakoli M "Tele-echography of Moving Organs using an Impedance-controlled Telerobotic System", Mechatronics 45, pp. 60-70, 2017.
 E. Clarke, Circuit Analysis of AC Power Systems, Agand P, Motaharifar M and D. Taghirad H D "Decentralized Robust Control for Teleoperated Needle Insertion with Uncertainty and Communication Delay." Mechatronics, 46, pp. 46-59, 2017.
 Kumar N and Ohri J "Design of Haptic Interface Controller under Noise Uncertainty and Delay Condition" Procedia Computer Science, 70, pp. 793-800, 2015.
 Uddin R and Ryu J "Predictive control Approaches for Bilateral Teleoperation" Annual Reviews in Control 42, pp. 82-99, 2016.
 Agand P, Motaharifar M and D. Taghirad H D "Decentralized Robust Control for Teleoperated Needle Insertion with Uncertainty and Communication Delay" Mechatronics, Vol. 46, pp. 46-59, 2017.
 Chan L, Naghdy F and Stirling D, "Position and Force Tracking for Nonlinear Haptic Telemanipulator under Varying Delays with an Improved Extended Active Observer" Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 75(PB), pp. 145-160, 2016.
 Amini. H, Dabbagh. V, Rezaei. S.M, Zarenejad. M, Mardi. N. A and Sarhan. A. A,"Robust Control-based Linear Bilateral Teleoperation System without Force Sensor", Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 37(2), pp. 579-87, 2015.
 Azimifar F, Abrishamkar M, Farzaneh B, Sarhan A. D, Amini H, "Improving Teleoperation System Performance in the Presence of Estimated External Force," Robotics and Computer –Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 46. Pp. 86-93, 2017.
 Amini H, Farzaneh. B, Azimifar. F and Sarhan. A. A, "Sensor-less Force-Reflecting Macro-Micro Telemanipulation systems by Piezoelectric actuators", ISA Transaction, Vol. 64, pp. 293-302, 2016.
 Khalil HK, "Nonlinear Systems" 3rd edition. Prentice Hall, 2002.
 Cho HC, Park JH "Impedance Controller design of Internet-Based Teleoperation using Absolute Stability Concept." In: Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Switzerland. 2256–61, 2002.
 Slotine JJE, Li W "Applied Nonlinear Control." NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991.