AC Optimal Power Flow Problem Considering Wind Energy by an Improved Particle Swarm Optimization
AbstractThis paper presents an AC optimal power ﬂow (AC-OPF) problem of a power system, considering wind energy. Wind energy is an environmental-friendly energy source to produce electrical power and it includes less operating costs compared with other sources of electrical power production. Wind generators also affect the operation cost of a power system as well as transmission losses, based on generators locations and speed of wind. In addition, wind speed is a parameter with uncertainty and considering this uncertainty is an important issue in operation of wind generators in the AC-OPF problem. The proposed AC-OPF formulation includes the integer variables in addition to continuous variables and studies the effects of wind energy, transformer tap settings, and shunt capacitors on fuel cost, transmission losses as well as up and down spinning reserves. To solve the AC-OPF model, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is presented. The IPSO algorithm in this work includes velocity mirror effect that causes improvement in the quality of the results. The proposed method is applied on modified IEEE 30 bus test system, and obtained results approve the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method.
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