Power and Frequency Control of Active Generator used for Smart Grid Applications

  • Ehsan Limouchi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
  • Seyed Abbas Taher Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
  • Babak Ganji Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.
Keywords: Active Generators, Sliding Mode Controller, Micro-grid, Voltage Source Converter, Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation


Nowadays, renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic and active generators are utilized frequently in modern power systems especially micro-grid. By providing electrical energy using micro-grid systems, the reliability and quality of the system can be improved. A micro-grid connected to the network depends on the main grid and consequently assessing the power quality during independent functioning (islanded mode) is important. The aim of the present work is to perform active, reactive power distribution strategies (control) for active generators used in smart grids. The proposed control method is the sliding mode which controls the active as well as reactive power and frequency. Here, based on sliding mode control method, droop control is developed for active generator. This controller is simulated for active generator by MATLAB/SIMULINK and simulation results are given. Based on the obtained simulation results, efficiency of sliding mode in regulating active and reactive power and controlling domain voltage and frequency are shown.


[1] X. Tang, K. M. Tsang, and W. L. Chan, “A power quality compensator with DG interface capability using repetitive control,” IEEE Trans. Energy. Convers., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 213-219, 2012.
[2] J. Guerrero, P. C. Loh, T. L. Lee, and M. Chandorkar, “Advanced control architectures for intelligent Microgrids-Part II: Power quality, energy storage, and AC/DC Microgrids,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1263-70, 2013.
[3] R. Kadri, J. P. Gaubert, and G. Champenois, “An improved maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic grid-connected inverter based on voltage-oriented control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 66-75, 2011.
[4] M. P. Kazmierkowski and L. Malesani, “Current control techniques for three-phase voltage source PWM converters: a survey,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 691-703, 1998.
[5] J. Hu, J. Zhu, D. G. Dorrell, and J. M. Guerrero, “Virtual flux droop method, a new control strategy of inverters in Micro-grids,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 4704-11, 2014.
[6] C. T. Pan and L. Yihung, “Modeling and control of circulating currents for parallel three-phase boost rectifiers with different load sharing,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 2776-85, 2008,
[7] Z. Zeng, H. Li, S. Tang, H. Yang, and R. Zhao, “Multi-objective control of multifunctional grid-connected inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality service,” IET Power Electron., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 761-70, 2016.
[8] E. Limouchi, S. A Taher, and B. Ganji, “Active generators power dispatching control in smart grid,” 21st Conference on Electrical Power Distribution Networks Conference (EPDC), Karaj, Iran, pp 26-32, 2016
[9] S. Peng, A. Luo, Y. Chen, and Z. Lv, “Dual-loop power control for single phase grid-connected converters with LCL filter,” J. Power Electron., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1-8, 2011.
[10] M. Sitbon, S. Schacham, and A. Kuperman, “Disturbance observer based voltage regulation of current-mode-boost-converter interfaced photovoltaic generator,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62,no. 9, pp. 5776–5785, 2015
[11] A. G. Yepes, F. D. Freijedo, J. Doval-Gandoy, O. Lopez, J. Malvar, and P. Fernandez -Comesana, “Effects of discretization methods on the performance of resonant controllers,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1692-1712, 2010.
[12] B. Kuperman, “Proportional-resonant current controllers design based on desired transient performance,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 5341-45, 2015.
[13] C. Kannana, N. K. Mohantyb, and R. Selvarasuc, “A new topology for cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter with PI and fuzzy control,” Energy Procedia, vol. 117, pp. 917-26, 2017.
[14] F. Karbakhsh, G. B. Gharehpetian, J. Milimonfared, and A. Teymoori, “Three-phase photovoltaic grid-tied inverter based on feed-forward decoupling control using fuzzy-PI controller,” 7th Power Electronics, Drive Systems &Technologies Conference (PEDSTC) , Tehran, Iran, pp. 16-18, 2016.
[15] K. Sinthipsomboon,W. Pongaen and P. Pratumsuwan, “A hybrid of fuzzy and fuzzy self-tuning PID controller for servo electro-hydraulic system,” 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, Beijing, China, pp. 220-25, 2011.
[16] P. Cortes, J. Rodriguez, C. Silva, and A. Flores, “Delay compensation in model predictive current control of a three-phase inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 1323-25, 2012.
[17] M. Datta, T. Senjyu, A. Yona, T. Funabashi, and C. H. Kim, “A frequency control approach by photovoltaic generator in a PV-Diesel hybrid power system,” IEEE Trans. Energy. Convers., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 559-71, 2011.
[18] M. N. Marwali and A. Keyhani, “Control of distributed generation system-Part I: Voltages and currents control,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1541-50, 2004.
[19] G. Bartolini, A. Ferrara, and E. Usai, “Chattering avoidance by second order sliding mode control,” IEEE Trans. Automat. Control, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 241-46, 1998.
[20] G. P. Incremona, M. Cucuzzella, and A. Ferrara, “Adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode control for micro grids,” International Journal of Control, pp. 1-19, 2016.
[21] J. C. Vasquez, J. M. Guerrero, A. Luna, P. Rodriguez, and R. Teodorescu, “Adaptive droop control applied to voltage source inverters operating in grid-connected and islanded modes,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 4088-96, 2009.
[22] T. Wu, Z. Liu, J. Liu, S. Wang, Z. You, “A unified virtual power decoupling method for droop-controlled parallel inverters in micro-grids,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5587-5603, 2016.
[23] L. Collins and J. K. Ward, “Real and reactive power control of distributed PV inverters for overvoltage prevention and increased renewable generation hosting capacity,” Renewable Energy, vol. 81, pp. 464-71, 2015.
[24] N. Kumar, T. K. Saha, and J. Dey, “Modeling, control and analysis of cascaded inverter based grid-connected photovoltaic system,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 78, pp. 165-73, 2016.
[25] E. Bianconi and et al., “A fast current-based MPPT technique employing sliding mode control,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no., pp. 1168-78, 2013.
[26] A. Nilsson and A. Sannino, “Efficiency analysis of low- and medium voltage dc distribution systems,” IEEE PES General Meeting, Washington DC, USA, vol. 2, pp. 2315-21, 2004.
[27] J. N. Edward, A. Ramadan, and E. Shatshat, “Multi-microgrid control systems,” IEEE PES General Meeting, Providence, RI, USA, pp. 1-6, 2010.
How to Cite
Limouchi, E., Taher, S. A., & Ganji, B. (2020). Power and Frequency Control of Active Generator used for Smart Grid Applications. Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, 14(1), 29-37. Retrieved from http://mjee.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/index/index.php/ee/article/view/3273