Backstepping Predictive Direct Power Control of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Considering Power Quality Issue
AbstractIn this paper, a grid connected PV system acting as shunt active power filter for power quality enhancement is presented. Further, a DC-DC boost converter is used to interface the photovoltaic generator with the grid, which provides a continuous power flow from the PV generator into the grid through a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). Hence, a nonlinear backstepping control method with predictive direct power control for the shunt active power filter side is presented, and a suitable backstepping DC-DC boost converter is also developed, with a view to reduce harmonic currents and insuring reactive power compensation under nonlinear loads variations on the utility grid, and also extracts the maximum amount of power from the photovoltaic generator. Processor in the Loop (PIL) co-simulation results prove the performances efficiency of the implemented control algorithms under a nonlinear load operating condition.
 K. Tsang and W. Chan, "Three-level grid-connected photovoltaic inverter with maximum power point tracking," Energy Conversion and management, vol. 65, pp. 221-227, 2013.
 M. Benadja, S. Saad, and A. Belhamra, "Rapid transaction to load variations of active filter supplied by PV system," Frontiers in Energy, vol. 8, pp. 335-344, 2014.
 P. Anjana, V. Gupta, H. Tiwari, and N. Gupta, "PV source integrated micro-grid for power quality improvement," in Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition (T&D), 2016 IEEE/PES, 2016, pp. 1-5.
 R. Noroozian and G. B. Gharehpetian, "An investigation on combined operation of active power filter with photovoltaic arrays," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 46, pp. 392-399, 2013.
 E. Romero-Cadaval, G. Spagnuolo, L. G. Franquelo, C. A. Ramos-Paja, T. Suntio, and W. M. Xiao, "Grid-connected photovoltaic generation plants: Components and operation," IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 7, pp. 6-20, 2013.
 J. Urbanetz, P. Braun, and R. Rüther, "Power quality analysis of grid-connected solar photovoltaic generators in Brazil," Energy Conversion and management, vol. 64, pp. 8-14, 2012.
 M. A. Mahmud, H. Pota, and M. Hossain, "Dynamic stability of three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system using zero dynamic design approach," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 2, pp. 564-571, 2012.
 H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, "Instantaneous reactive power compensators comprising switching devices without energy storage components," IEEE Transactions on industry applications, pp. 625-630, 1984.
 B. S. Chen and G. Joós, "Direct power control of active filters with averaged switching frequency regulation," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 23, pp. 2729-2737, 2008.
 T. Noguchi, H. Tomiki, S. Kondo, and I. Takahashi, "Direct power control of PWM converter without power-source voltage sensors," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 34, pp. 473-479, 1998.
 M. Malinowski, M. P. Kazmierkowski, S. Hansen, F. Blaabjerg, and G. Marques, "Virtual-flux-based direct power control of three-phase PWM rectifiers," IEEE Transactions on industry applications, vol. 37, pp. 1019-1027, 2001.
 Y. Zhang, J. Long, Y. Zhang, T. Lu, Z. Zhao, and L. Jin, "Table-based direct power control for three-level neutral point-clamped pulse-width modulated rectifier," IET Power Electronics, vol. 6, pp. 1555-1562, 2013.
 R. Portillo, S. Vazquez, J. I. Leon, M. M. Prats, and L. G. Franquelo, "Model based adaptive direct power control for three-level NPC converters," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 9, pp. 1148-1157, 2013.
 Y. Zhang, W. Xie, Z. Li, and Y. Zhang, "Model predictive direct power control of a PWM rectifier with duty cycle optimization," IEEE transactions on power electronics, vol. 28, pp. 5343-5351, 2013.
 P. R. Martinez-Rodriguez, G. Escobar, A. A. Valdez-Fernandez, M. Hernandez-Gomez, and J. M. Sosa, "Direct power control of a three-phase rectifier based on positive sequence detection," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, pp. 4084-4092, 2014.
 J. Hu, L. Shang, Y. He, and Z. Zhu, "Direct active and reactive power regulation of grid-connected DC/AC converters using sliding mode control approach," IEEE transactions on power electronics, vol. 26, pp. 210-222, 2011.
 J. Hu and Z. Zhu, "Improved voltage-vector sequences on dead-beat predictive direct power control of reversible three-phase grid-connected voltage-source converters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 28, pp. 254-267, 2013.
 R. Liu, A. Monti, G. Francis, R. Burgos, F. Wang, and D. Boroyevich, "Implementing a Processor-in-the-loop with a Universal Controller in the Virtual Test Bed," in Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2007. PESC 2007. IEEE, Orlando, FL, USA, 2007, pp. 945-950.
 Z. Jiang, R. A. Dougal, R. Leonard, H. Figueroa, and A. Monti, "Hardware-in-the-loop testing of digital power controllers," in Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 2006. APEC'06. Twenty-First Annual IEEE, 2006, p. 6 pp.
 J. Mina, Z. Flores, E. López, A. Pérez, and J.-H. Calleja, "Processor-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop simulation of electric systems based in FPGA," in Power Electronics (CIEP), 2016 13th International Conference on, 2016, pp. 172-177.
 G. Francis, R. Burgos, P. Rodriguez, F. Wang, D. Boroyevich, R. Liu, et al., "Virtual prototyping of universal control architecture systems by means of processor in the loop technology," in Applied Power Electronics Conference, APEC 2007-Twenty Second Annual IEEE, 2007, pp. 21-27.
 G. W. Chang, R. C. Hong, and H. J. Su, "An efficient reference compensation current strategy of three‐phase shunt active power filter implemented with processor‐in‐the‐loop simulation," International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, vol. 24, pp. 125-140, 2014.
 C. Byrnes and A. Isidori, "Output regulation for nonlinear systems: an overview," International journal of robust and nonlinear control, vol. 10, pp. 323-337, 2000.
 M. Bouzidi, A. Benaissa, S. Barkat, S. Bouafia, and A. Bouzidi, "Virtual flux direct power control of the three-level NPC shunt active power filter based on backstepping control," International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management, vol. 8, pp. 287-300, 2017.
 Y. Zhang, B. Fidan, and P. A. Ioannou, "Backstepping control of linear time-varying systems with known and unknown parameters," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 48, pp. 1908-1925, 2003.
 E. H. Watanabe, H. Akagi, and M. Aredes, "Instantaneous pq power theory for compensating nonsinusoidal systems," in Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation, 2008. ISNCC 2008. International School on, 2008, pp. 1-10.