Comparative Analysis of 12/16 Conventional and Proposed C-core Radial Flux SRM Topologies for In-wheel Electric Vehicle Application
AbstractIn, in-wheel Electrical Vehicle (EV) application Axial Flux Switched Reluctance Motor (AFSRM) is more suitable than Radial Flux Switched Reluctance Motor (RFSRM) due to higher outer diameter to axial length ratio with, lower flux length and higher flux density. Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) attract more attention due to its Permanent Magnet (PM) free structure. In view of this, C-core RFSRM is proposed. It is offered combined merits of radial as well axial flux SRM. In this paper C-core RFSRM is compared with conventional RFSRM based on 12/16 pole three phase structure. Average torque and phase inductance are calculated with mathematical modeling. Computer Added Design (CAD) is verified with 2D and 3D Finite Element (FE) analysis. It is observed based on simulation result that, C-core RFSRM is offered higher torque than conventional RFSRM with removable wheel/rotor facility without disturbing stator. Prototype hardware is designed for the proposed C-core RFSRM and check the feasibility for in-wheel application.
 A. L. M. d. Santos, J. Anthonis, F. Naclerio, J. J. C. Gyselinck, H. V. d. Auweraer, and L. C. S. Goes, “Multiphysics NVH modeling: Simulation of a switched reluctance motor for an electric vehicle,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 469–476, Jan. 2014.
 M. Takeno, A. Chiba, N. Hoshi, S. Ogasawara, M. Takemoto, and M. A. Rahman, “Test results and torque improvement of the 50-kW switched reluctance motor designed for hybrid electric vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1327–1334, Jul./Aug. 2012.
 H. Chen and J. J. Gu, “Switched reluctance motor drive with external rotor for fan in air conditioner,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1448–1458, Oct. 2013.
 V. Valdivia, R. Todd, F. J. Bryan, A. Barrado, A. Lazaro, and A. J. Forsyth, “Behavioral modeling of a switched reluctance generator for aircraft power systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2690–2699, Jun. 2014.
 Wei Xu, Jianguo Zhu, Youguang Guo, “Applied Superconductivity and Electromagnetic Devices,” Proceedings of 2009 IEEE International Conference on Chengdu China, Sept., 2009.
 Lovatt, H.C. “Optimization of switched reluctance motors for hybrid electric vehicles,” Power Electronics, Machines and Drives, International Conference , Publ. No. 487, pp. 177 – 182, 2002 .
 Jung-Pyo Hong “Stator Pole and Yoke Design for Vibration Reduction of Switched Reluctance Motor,” IEEE Trans. on Magn., Vol. 38, No. 2, March 2002, pp. 929.
 Jian Li, Xueguan Song, “Comparison of 12/8 and 6/4 Switched Reluctance Motor: Noise and Vibration Aspects,” IEEE Trans. on Magn., Vol. 44, N0. 11, Nov. 2008, pp. 4131.
 J. Corda, A.M. Tataru, P.O. Rasmussen and E. Ritchie, “Analytical estimation of torque enhancement of the SR machine with saw-shaped (shark) pole surfaces,” IEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 151, No. 2, March 2004.
 Shang-Hsun Mao and Mi-Ching Tsai , “Novel Switched Reluctance Motor With C-Core Stators,” IEEE Transactions on Magn, Vol. 41, No. 12, pp. 413, Dec. 2005.
 Wen Yang, “Design and research of a new dual-rotor switched reluctance motor for hybrid electric vehicles,” Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), International Conference, pp. 829 – 833, 2010.
 Wang Yaling, “Outer-rotor switched reluctance motor and its control system used in electric vehicles”, Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), International Conference, pp. 1 – 4, 2011.
 Sakthivel, P., “Design of a 250 w, low speed switched reluctance Hub motor for two wheelers,” Electrical Energy Systems (ICEES), 1st International Conference, pp.176 – 181,2011.
 R. Madhavan and B.G. Fernandes, “A Novel Technique for Minimizing Torque Ripple in Axial Flux Segmented Rotor SRM,” IEEE Conference, Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), pp. 3383 – 3390, 2011.
 B. G. Fernandes, “A Novel Axial Flux Segmented SRM for Electric Vehicle Application,” XIX International IEEE Conference on Electrical Machines – ICEM, pp 1-6. Sept. 2010.
 Salman Khaliq, Mohammad Modarres, Thomas A. Lipo, “Design of novel axial-flux dual stator doubly fed reluctance machine,” IEEE Trans. on magn., Vol. 51, No. 11, pp. 804-807 Nov. 2015
 Fernandes B.G., “Comparative analysis of axial flux SRM topologies for electric vehicle application,” Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), IEEE International Conference, pp. 1 – 6, Dec.2012.
 Madhavan R., “Axial flux segmented SRM with a higher number of Rotor segments for electric Vehicles,” Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 203 – 213, 2013.
 WU Qinghai, HE Xiaofeng, JIN Defei, WU Shasha, ZHANG Tao, “Parameter design and FEM analysis for 3-phase 6/4 poles switched reluctance motor,” Proceedings of the 30th Chinese Control Conference, July 2011.
 Praveen Vijayraghavan, “Design of switched reluctance motors and development of a universal controller for switched reluctance and permanent magnet brushless DC motor drives,” PhD Report, Blacksburg, Virginia, Nov. 2001.
 Ragavan, K., Prathamesh,J., “A novel magnetic-circuit based design approach for electric vehicle motors,” Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), IEEE International, , pp. 1 – 5, 2012,
 Wen Ding1, Zhonggang Yin2, Ling Liu1, “Magnetic circuit model and finite-element analysis of a modular switched reluctance machine with E-core stators and multi-layer common rotors,” Published in IET Electric Power Applications, March 2014. ISSN 1751-8660.
 M.Sc. Tobias Kellerer, Dr.-Ing. Oliver Radler , “Axial Type Switched Reluctance Motor of Soft Magnetic Composite,” Innovative Small Drives and Micro-Motor Systems, GMM/ETG Symposium, pp. 1 – 6, 2013.
 Anas Labak and Narayan C. Kar, “Novel Approaches Towards Leakage Flux Reduction in Axial Flux Switched Reluctance Machines,” IEEE Trans. on Magn, Vol. 49, No. 8, Aug. 2013.
 A. Chiba, Y. Takano, M. Takeno, T. Imakawa, N. Hoshi M. Takemoto, and S. Ogasawara, “Torque density and efficiency improvements of a switched reluctance motor without rare-earth material for hybrid vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 1240–1246, May/Jun. 2011.
 Y. K. Choi, H. S. Yoon, and C. S. Koh, “Pole-shape optimization of a switched-reluctance motor for torque ripple reduction,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 1797–1800, Apr. 2007.
 J. Li, X. Song, and Y. Cho, “Comparison of 12/8 and 6/4 switched reluctance motor: Noise and vibration aspects,” IEEE Trans. Magn., vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 679–686, Nov. 2008.
 Alireza Siadatan, Ebrahim Afjei, “An 8/6 Two Layers Switched Reluctance Motor: Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Analysis,” Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 1, March 2012.
 T. Higuchi, K. Ueda, and T. Abe, “Torque ripple reduction control of a novel segment type SRM with 2-steps slide rotor,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Power Electron. Conf., pp. 2175–2180, Jun. 2010.
 B. Bilgin, A. Emadi, and M. Krishnamurthy, “Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic performance of a 6/10 SRM for traction application in PHEVs,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 2564–2575, Jul. 2013.
 Nikunj R. Patel, Varsha A. Shah, and Makarand M Lokhande “Design and performance analysis of axial flux c-core switched reluctance motor for in-wheel electrical vehicle application,” IEEE ITEC Conference, pp 1– 6, June-2016.
 Nikunj R. Patel, Varsha A. Shah, and Makarand M Lokhande “A novel approach to the design and Development of 12/15 radial field C-core switched reluctance motor for implementation in electric vehicle application ,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, May-2018 [Online Available].
 Larminie, J. and Lowry, J., “Electric Vehicle Technology Explained,” John Wiley and Sons ltd, pp. 186 – 192, 2003