A New QoS-Aware and Stable Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Wireless Networks

  • Behrouz Jafari Department of Computer Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
  • MohammadReza SoltanAghaei Department of Computer Engineering, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Keywords: Ad-hoc Networks, Opportunistic Routing, Quality of Routing, Stability of Candidates


Due to the specific nature and various limitations in the architecture and resources of mobile wireless networks, AD HOC networks are highly challenging and risky in terms of quality spheres and maintaining such systems. Opportunistic routing provides the opportunity to improve these issues and enhance the network performance appropriately. Meanwhile, due to unspecified exchange routes in this strategy, it is more difficult to support the quality of routing. In this type of routing, decision-making and candidate prioritization are done based on a criterion named “opportunism” in such a way that this method of prioritization and selection leads to increased instability in intermediate routes. Accordingly, in order to improve this issue, this research introduces a new routing protocol, named “QoS-Aware and Stable Opportunistic Routing Protocol (QSORP)”. The QSORP is a three-stage protocol that is based on the performance of its stages, tries to provide quality together with stability in opportunistic routing depending on the necessities and requirements of this type of routing. The QSORP protocol supports the capability of reducing the complexity of candidate management in addition to effectively supporting the quality and stability of links. In order to evaluate the QSORP’s performance and efficiency, this protocol is simulated using the OPNET simulator and then the protocol is compared with two other protocols; ORAC and QEOR. The simulation results indicated the superiority of the proposed protocol based on the following criteria: unstable intermediate routes, rate of received data, and network throughput.


[1] T. Qiu, N. Chena, K. Lib, D. Qiaoc, and Z. Fud,"Heterogeneous ad hoc networks: Architectures, advances and challenges," Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 55, pp. 143–152, 2017.
[2] C. V. Raghavendran, G. N. Satish, P. S. Varma, K. Kumar, "Challenges and Advances in QoS Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Vol. 3, pp. 121-127, 2013.
[3] E. Biagioni, S. Giordano, and C. Dobre, "Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 55, pp. 166-167, 2017.
[4] A. Iftikhar, U. Ashraf, and A. Ghafoor, "A comparative QoS survey of mobile ad hoc network routing protocols," Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, Vol. 23, pp. 1-8, 2016.
[5] A. Darehshoorzadeh, M. Almulla, A. Boukerche,
and S. Chaiwala, "On the number of candidates in opportunistic routing for multi-hop wireless networks," In Proceedings of the 11th ACM international symposium on Mobility management and wireless access, pp. 9-16, 2014.
[6] V. R. Budyala, S. S. Manvi, "ANFIS and agent based bandwidth and delay aware anycast routing in mobile ad hoc networks," Journal of Network and Computer Applications Elsevier, Vol. 39, pp. 140-151, 2015.
[7] Y. Qin, L. Li, X. Zhong, Y. Yang, and Y. Ye, "Opportunistic routing with admission control in wireless ad hoc networks," Computer Communications Elsevier Journal, Vol. 55, pp. 32-40, 2015.
[8] S. Rachamalla, and A. S. Kancherla, "A two-hop based adaptive routing protocol for real-time wireless sensor networks," Springer Plus, Vol. 5, pp. 1110-1124, 2016.
[9] . Tiab, L. B. Medjkoune, and S. Boulfekhar, "A new QoS aware and energy efficient opportunistic routing protocol for wireless sensor networks," International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, Vol. 29, pp. 1-17, 2016.
[10] S. Yang, F. Zhong, C. Yeo, B. Lee, and J. Boleng, “Position based opportunistic routing for robust data delivery in MANETs,” in Proc IEEE Conf. GLOBECOM, pp. 1-6, 2010.
[11] Z. Zhao et al., “Topology and link quality-aware geographical opportunistic routing in wireless ad-hoc networks,” in Proc. IEEE 9th IWCMC, pp. 1522–1527, 2013.
[12] Z. Wang, Y. Chen, and C. Li, “CORMAN: A novel cooperative opportunistic routing scheme in mobile ad hoc networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Communication, Vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 289-296, 2012.
[13] Z. Zhao, D. Rosario, T. Braun, and E. Cerqueira, "Context-aware opportunistic routing in mobile ad-hoc networks incorporating node mobility," in Proc. IEEE WCNC, pp. 2138-2143, 2014.
[14] C. Hsu, H. Liu, and W. Seah, “Economy: A duplicate free opportunistic routing,” in Proc. 6th ACM In. Conf. Mobile Technol. Appl. Syst, pp. 1-6, 2010.
[15] Y. Lin, B. Liang, and B. Li, “SlideOR: Online opportunistic network coding in wireless mesh networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-5, 2011.
[16] D. Koutsonikolas, C. Wang, and Y. Hu, "CCACK: Efficient network coding based opportunistic routing through cumulative coded acknowledgments," in Proc. IEEE Conf. INFOCOM, pp. 1-9, 2012.
[17] M. K. Han, A. Bhartia, L. Qiu, and E. Rozner, "O3: Optimized overlay-based opportunistic routing," in Proc. ACMInt. Symp.MobiHoc, pp.1-11, 2012.
[18] S. Nelson, M. Bakht, and R. Kravets, "Encounter-based routing in DTNs,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 846-854, 2010.
[19] M. N. R. Bruno and M. Conti, "MaxOPP: A novel opportunistic routing for wireless mesh networks," in Proc. IEEE ISCC, pp. 255-260, 2011.
[20] X. Fang, D. Yang, and G. Xue, "Consort: Node-constrained opportunistic routing in wireless mesh networks," in Proc. IEEE Conf. INFOCOM, pp. 1907-1915, 2012.
[21] M. Xiao, J. Wu, K. Liu, and L. Huang, "TOUR: Time-sensitive opportunistic utility-based routing in delay tolerant networks," in Proc. IEEE Conf. INFOCOM, pp. 2085-2091, 2014.
[22] A. Bhorkar, M. Naghshvar, T. Javidi, and B. Rao, "Adaptive opportunistic routing for wireless ad-hoc networks,” IEEE/ACM Transaction Network, Vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 243-256, 2012.
[23] P. Tehrani, Q. Zhao, and T. Javidi, "Opportunistic routing under unknown stochastic models," in Proc. IEEE 5th Int. Workshop CAMSAP, pp. 145-148, 2014.
[24] Y. Li, A. Mohaisen, and Z. Zhang, "Trading optimality for scalability in large-scale opportunistic routing,” IEEE Transaction Veh. Technology, Vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 2253-2263, 2013.
[25] S. C. W. Y. Shin and Y. Lee, "Parallel opportunistic routing in wireless networks," IEEE Transaction Information Theory, Vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 6290-6300, 2013.
[26] G. Lee and Z. Haas, "Simple, practical, effective opportunistic routing for short-haul multi-hop wireless networks," IEEE Transaction Wireless Communication, Vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 3583-3588, 2011.
[27] W. Hu, J. Xie, and Z. Zhag, "Practical opportunistic routing in high speed multi rate wireless mesh networks," in Proc. 14th ACM Int. Symp. MobiHoc, pp. 127-136, 2013.
[28] X. Mao, S. Tang, X. Xu, X. Li, and H. Ma, "Energy efficient opportunistic routing in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transaction Parallel Distribution System, Vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1934-1942, 2012.
[29] B. Pavkovic, F. Theoleyre, and A. Duda, "Multipath opportunistic RPL routing over IEEE 802.15.4," in Proc. ACMInt. Conf.MSWiM, pp. 179-186, 2011.
[30] Q. Lampin, D. Barthel, I. Augé-Blum, and F. Valois, "QoS oriented opportunistic routing protocol for wireless sensor networks," in Proc. IFIP Wireless Days, pp. 1-6, 2012.
[31] M. Naghshvar and T. Javidi, "Opportunistic routing with congestion diversity in wireless multi-hop networks," in Proc. IEEE Conf. INFOCOM, pp. 1-5, 2010.
[32] E. Ghadimi, O. Landsiedel, P. Soldati, S. Duquennoy, and M. Johansson, "Opportunistic routing in low duty-cycled wireless sensor networks," ACM Transaction Sensor Network, Vol. 10, no. 4, 2014.
[33] J. Zuo et al., "Cross-layer aided energy-efficient opportunistic routing in ad hoc networks,” IEEE Transaction Communication, Vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 522-535, 2014.
How to Cite
Jafari, B., & SoltanAghaei, M. (2018). A New QoS-Aware and Stable Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Wireless Networks. Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, 12(4), 25-40. Retrieved from http://mjee.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/index/index.php/ee/article/view/2753

Most read articles by the same author(s)