Design of Math Function Based Controller for Smooth Switching of Hybrid Energy Storage System
AbstractHybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) has been implemented for better energy efficiency to Hybrid/Electric Vehicles (HEV/EV), in that the main source is Battery and UltraCapacitor (UC) is the auxiliary source. The battery is connected to DC Bus through Boost Converter and UltraCapacitor has connected through Buck-Boost Converter. Battery and UltraCapacitor voltages levels are maintained less than the DC bus voltage. The main aim of this paper is to design an intelligent controller for a smooth transition between the sources in the Hybrid Energy Storage System. Math Function Based (MFB) Controller has modelled and implemented to an electric motor for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application. The MFB controller has to work based on the Speed of the motor and this controller makes the closed loop operation of the overall system with smooth operation between the energy sources. Proportional Integral (PI) controller used here to maintain the constant voltage profile for various loads at the terminals of the electric motor. Combination of PI and MFB controllers has given closed loop operation of the entire model with smooth switching between the sources. The total circuit has simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and obtained the satisfactory results, which are discussed in the results section.
 D. Wu, R. Todd, A. J. Forsyth, "Adaptive rate-limit control for energy storage systems", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 62(7), pp. 4231-40, 2015.
 C. Xiang, Y. Wang, S. Hu, W. Wang, "A new topology and control strategy for a hybrid battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system", Energies, Vol. 7(5), pp. 2874-96, 2014.
 A. Sciarretta, L. Serrao, P. C. Dewangan, P. Tona, E. Bergshoeff, C. Bordons, and L. Charmpa, "A control benchmark on the energy management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle", Control Eng. Practice, Vol. 29, pp. 287–298, 2014.
 Y. C. Fong , X. D. Xue, S. R. Raman, K. W. E. Cheng and X. L. Wang, "Investigation of energy distribution and power split of hybrid energy storage systems in electric vehicles," International Symposium on Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong, pp. 1-7, 2016.
 K. Saichand, V. John, "Generalized design of passive components for ultracapacitor-based bidirectional DC-DC converters," IEEE Annual India Conference, Bangalore, pp. 1-6, 2016.
 P. Golchoubian, N. L. Azad, "Real-Time Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Battery–Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System", in Electric Vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 66(11), pp. 9678-88, 2017.
 H. Gualous, P. Van Den Bossche ,O. Capron, N. Omar ,A. Samba, and J. Van Mierlo "Battery thermal modelling - Assessment of heat distribution and optimization of battery design concept,"International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications, Madrid, pp. 304-309, 2013.
 A. Emadi, J. Cao ,"New Battery/Ultra Capacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric, Hybrid, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles", IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 122 132, 2012.
 A. M. Hava, H. H. Eroglu, "Design and implementation of an ultracapacitor test system," IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Gdansk, pp. 194-199, 2011.