Management of Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Aziz Hanifi Department of Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Taghva Department of Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
  • Robab Hamlbarani Haghi Department of Mathematics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran
  • Kamran Feizi Department of Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: Clustering, Energy, Multi-criteria Decision Making, Sensor Networks, AHP Method


Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) contains an enormous number of sensor nodes deployed in huge numbers which are able to sense, process and transmit environmental data to the base station for plenty of applications. Clustering is one of the important issues for prolonging the network lifetime in wireless sensor networks. It includes grouping of sensor nodes into clusters and selecting cluster heads for all the clusters. Cluster heads collect the data from respective cluster’s nodes and forward the aggregated data to base station. Some important challenges in wireless sensor networks are to find optimal number of clusters, clustering and to select appropriate cluster heads. In this direction, we present a method that includes three phases. At first, the optimum number of clusters is calculated.  In the second, clustering is done by use of k-means algorithm. In the last phase, it is presented a multi criteria decision-making approach for the selection of cluster heads. This approach is used to select cluster heads based on criteria including residual energy, the distance (the distance from the cluster and the distance from the base station), the number of neighbors (the one-step neighbor and the two-step neighbor), the centrality of the nodes and the number of times a node has been cluster head. We implement the proposed method in the NS2 environment and evaluate its effect and compare it with the NEECP and E-LEACH methods. The simulation results demonstrate that this approach is more effective in prolonging the network lifetime than the NEECP and E-LEACH methods in homogeneous environments.


[1] I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasbramaniam, and E. Cayirci "A Survey on Sensor Networks", In proc. IEEE Communication magazine, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp 102-114, August 2002.
[2] J. Zheng, A. Jamalipour, "Wireless sensor networks: a networking perspective", New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
[3] I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "Wireless sensor networks: a survey", Computer networks, Vol. 38, pp. 393-422, 2002.
[4] Q. Zhang, L. Yancheng , G. Haohao, and Q. Zhang "The Design of Hybrid MAC Protocol for Industry Monitoring System Based on WSN", Procedia Engineering, Vol. 23, pp. 290-295, 2011.
[5] E. Cayirci, T. Gupla, "Sendrom: Sensor networks for disaster relief operations management", Wireless Networks, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 409–423, 2007.
[6] Y. L. Zheng, "Unobtrusive Sensing and Wearable Devices for Health Informatics", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Vol .61, No. 5, pp. 1538-1554, 2014.
[7] C -H. Tsai, Y.-C. Tseng. "A path-connected-cluster wireless sensor network and its formation, addressing, and routing protocols", IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 2135-2144, 2012.
[8] I. F. Akyildiz, M. C. Vuran, "Wireless sensor networks", United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, July 2010.
[9] A. Abbasi, and M. Younis, "A survey on clustering algorithms for wireless sensor networks", Computer communications, Vol. 30, pp. 2826-2841, 2007.
[10] W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "application-specific protocol architecture for wireless micro sensor networks", IEEE Trans. On Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp.660–670, October 2002.
[11] W. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, "Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks", Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 4-7 January 2000.
[12] L. Xiang, J. Luo, and A. Vasilakos, "Compressed data aggregation for energy efficient wireless sensor networks", In proc. 8th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), pp. 46-54, 2011.
[13] S. Lindsey, C. S. Raghavendra, (2002). "PEGASIS: Power efficient gathering in sensor information systems", In proc. of IEEE Aerospace Conference, Vol. 3, pp. 1125–1130.
[14] O. Younis, S. Fahmy, "HEED: A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad Hoc Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 366-379, October 2004. [doi>10.1109/TMC.2004.41]
[15] Y. Yanjun, Q. Cao , A.V. Vasilakos , "EDAL: An energy-efficient, delayaware, and lifetime-balancing data collection protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks", IEEE ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 810–823, June 2015.
[16] Y. Liu, N. Xiong , Y. Zhao , A.V. Vasilakos , J. Gao , and Y. Jia "Multi-layer clustering routing algorithm for wireless vehicular sensor networks", IET Communications. Vol.4, No. 7 , pp. 810–816, April 2010. DOI: 10.1049/iet-com.2009.0164
[17] Y. Yao, Q. Cao, and A. V. Vasilakos, "EDAL: An Energy-Efficient, Delay-Aware, and Lifetime-Balancing Data Collection Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 810–823, 2015.
[18] K. Han, J. Luo, Y. Liu, and A. V. Vasilakos, "Algorithm design for data communications in duty-cycled wireless sensor networks: A survey", Communications Magazine, IEEE, Vol. 51, No. 7, pp. 107–113, 2013.
[19] G. Wei, Y. Ling, B. Guo, B. Xiao, A. V. Vasilakos, "Prediction-based data aggregation in wireless sensor networks: Combining grey model and Kalman Filter", Computer Communications. Vol. 34, No. 6 , pp. 793–802, 2011.
[20] V. Loscri, G. Morabito, and S. Marano, "A two-level hierarchy for low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (TL-LEACH)", in proc. IEEE 62nd Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 1809-1813,
[21] M. B. Yassein, A. Al-zou'bi, Y. Khamayseh, and W. Mardini, "Improvement on LEACH Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network (VLEACH)", International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 132-136, 2009. doi:10.4156/jdcta. vol. 3, Issue. 2, yassein
[22] M. Xiaoyan, "Study and design on clustering routing protocols of wireless sensor networks", Ph.D Dissertation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 2006.
[23] R. M. B. Hani, A. A. Ijjeh, "A Survey on LEACH-based energy aware protocols for wireless sensor networks", Journal of Communications, Vol. 8, No. 3, March 2013.
[24] A. Bari, A. Jaekel, S. Bandyopadhyay, "Clustering strategies for improving the lifetime of two-tiered sensor networks", Computer Communications, Vol. 31, No. 14, 3451–3459, 2008.
[25] N. Chilamkurti, S. Zeadally, A. Vasilakos, and V Sharma, "Cross-layer support for energy efficient routing in wireless sensor networks", Journal of Sensors, pp. 1-9, 2009.
[26] T. Meng, F. Wu, Z. yang, G. Chen, and A.V. Vasilakos, "Spatial reusability-aware routing in multihop wireless networks", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 244–255, 2016.
[27] P. Li, S. Guo, S. yu, and A.V. Vasilakos, "Reliable multicast with pipelined network coding using opportunistic feeding and routing", IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 25, No. 12 , pp. 3264–3273, 2014.
[28] C. Busch, R. Kannan ; A. V. Vasilakos "Approximating congestion + dilation in networks via ‘‘quality of routing games", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 61, No. 9, pp. 1270–1283, 2012.
[29] N. Zhu, A.V. Vasilakos, "A generic framework fo energy evaluation on wireless sensor networks", Wireless Networks. Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 1199–1220, 2015.
[30] S. Singh, S. Chand, R. Kumar, A. Malik, B. Kumar, "NEECP: A Novel Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Lifetime of WSNs", IET Wireless Sensor Systems, Vol. 6, No. 5, 151-157
[31] W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, H. Balakrishnan, "Anapplication-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks", IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 660–670, October 2002.
[32] T. L. Saaty, "Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process", Int. J. Services Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2008.
[33] B.O. Saracoglu, "Selecting industrial investment locations in master plans of countries", European J. of Industrial Engineering. Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 416–441, 2013. doi:10.1504/EJIE.2013.055016.
[34] D. Kumar, T.C. Aseri, R.B. Patel, "EEHC: Energy efficient heterogeneous clustered scheme for wireless sensor networks", Computer Communications, Vol. 32, pp. 662-667, 2009.
[35] SD. Pohekar, M. Ramachandran, "Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning- A review", Elsevier, 2003.
[36] P. Azad, "Cluster head selection using multiple attribute decision making (MADM) approach in wireless sensor networks", Springer, pp. 141-154, 2013.
[37] B.M. Khan, R. Bilal, R. young, "Fuzzy-topsis based cluster head selection in mobile wireless sensor networks", Journal of electrical systems and information technology, In press.
[38] Y. Yin, J. Shi, Y. Li, P. Zhang, "Cluster Head selection using Analytical Hierarchy Process for wireless sensor networks", Proc. The 17th annual IEEE international symposiumon personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (PIMRC), 2006.
[39] G. Devi, S. Swain, R.S. Bal, "The K-means clustering used in wireless sensor network", International journal on computer science and engineering, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 106-111, 2016.
[40] F. Comeau, W. Robertson, S. C. Sivakumar, andW. J. Phillips, "Energy conserving architectures and algorithms for wireless sensor networks", in Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS ’06)’, Vol. 9, pp. 236-247, January 2006.
How to Cite
Hanifi, A., Taghva, M. R., Haghi, R., & Feizi, K. (2018). Management of Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, 12(2), 75-86. Retrieved from