Design of novel fault tolerant XOR structure in Quantum Dot Cellular Automata
AbstractQuantum Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the main substitutes for CMOS technology and it is used in implementation of different systems. Manifest features including high speed and low power consumption increase the subject of the QCA in research. However, the extensive possibility of occurrence of defects and appropriate physical implementation in the QCA is one of fundamental challenges in using such technology. In this study, basic details about nanotechnology and related discussions to the fault tolerant in this field are presented. In addition, by investigation on several XOR gates, two novel XOR gates are proposed, these gates were designed by using fault tolerance tile structures. Afterwards, for determining the optimum gate, the tolerance rate of these gates against missing cell defects were investigated. Simulation results showed that proposed gates have more tolerance against missing cell defects.
 T. Cole and J. Lusth, "Quantum-dot cellular automata," Progress in Quantum Electronics, vol. 25, pp. 165-189, 2001.
 H. Mahmoodi, S. Mukhopadhyay, and K. Roy, "Estimation of delay variations due to random-dopant fluctuations in nanoscale CMOS circuits," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, pp. 1787-1796, 2005.
 I. Amlani, A. O. Orlov, G. Toth, G. H. Bernstein, C. S. Lent, and G. L. Snider, "Digital logic gate using quantum-dot cellular automata," science, vol. 284, pp. 289-291, 1999.
 P. D. Tougaw and C. S. Lent, "Logical devices implemented using quantum cellular automata," Journal of Applied physics, vol. 75, pp. 1818-1825, 1994.
 A. Orlov, A. Imre, G. Csaba, L. Ji, W. Porod, and G. Bernstein, "Magnetic quantum-dot cellular automata: Recent developments and prospects," Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics, vol. 3, pp. 55-68, 2008.
 G. H. Bernstein, A. Imre, V. Metlushko, A. Orlov, L. Zhou, L. Ji, et al., "Magnetic QCA systems," Microelectronics Journal, vol. 36, pp. 619-624, 2005.
 Y. Wang and M. Lieberman, "Thermodynamic behavior of molecular-scale quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) wires and logic devices," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 368-376, 2004.
 Y. Lu and C. S. Lent, "Theoretical study of molecular quantum-dot cellular automata," Journal of Computational Electronics, vol. 4, pp. 115-118, 2005.
 A. Pulimeno, M. Graziano, D. Demarchi, and G. Piccinini, "Towards a molecular QCA wire: simulation of write-in and read-out systems," Solid-State Electronics, vol. 77, pp. 101-107, 2012.
 M. Momenzadeh, J. Huang, M. B. Tahoori, and F. Lombardi, "Characterization, test, and logic synthesis of and-or-inverter (AOI) gate design for QCA implementation," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 24, pp. 1881-1893, 2005.
 W. Liu, L. Lu, M. O'Neill, and E. E. Swartzlander, "Design rules for quantum-dot cellular automata," in Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2011 IEEE International Symposium on, 2011, pp. 2361-2364.
 C. S. Lent and B. Isaksen, "Clocked molecular quantum-dot cellular automata," IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 50, pp. 1890-1896, 2003.
 V. Vankamamidi, M. Ottavi, and F. Lombardi, "Two-dimensional schemes for clocking/timing of QCA circuits," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 27, pp. 34-44, 2008.
 K. Navi, S. Sayedsalehi, R. Farazkish, and M. R. Azghadi, "Five-input majority gate, a new device for quantum-dot cellular automata," Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, vol. 7, pp. 1546-1553, 2010.
 R. Akeela and M. D. Wagh, "A five-input majority gate in quantum-dot cellular automata," in NSTI Nanotech, 2011, pp. 978-981.
 B. Sen and B. Sikdar, "Characterization of universal NAND-NOR-inverter QCA gate," in 11th IEEE VLSI Design and Test Symposium, Kolkata, 2007.
 M. B. Tahoori, M. Momenzadeh, J. Huang, and F. Lombardi, "Defects and faults in quantum cellular automata at nano scale," in VLSI Test Symposium, 2004. Proceedings. 22nd IEEE, 2004, pp. 291-296.
 R. Farazkish, "A new quantum-dot cellular automata fault-tolerant five-input majority gate," Journal of nanoparticle research, vol. 16, p. 2259, 2014.
 M. Khatun, B. D. Padgett, G. A. Anduwan, I. Sturzu, and D. Tougaw, "Defect and temperature effects on complex quantum-dot cellular automata devices," Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, vol. 1, p. 7, 2013.
 M. Poorhosseini, "Novel Defect Terminolgy Beside Evaluation And Design Fault Tolerant Logic Gates In Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata," Journal of Advances in Computer Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 17-26, 2016.
 J. Dai, L. Wang, and F. Lombardi, "An information-theoretic analysis of quantum-dot cellular automata for defect tolerance," ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC), vol. 6, p. 9, 2010.
 J. Huang, M. Momenzadeh, L. Schiano, and F. Lombardi, "Simulation-based design of modular QCA circuits," in Nanotechnology, 2005. 5th IEEE Conference on, 2005, pp. 533-536.
 X. Yang, L. Cai, S. Wang, Z. Wang, and C. Feng, "Reliability and performance evaluation of QCA devices with rotation cell defect," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 11, pp. 1009-1018, 2012.
 J. Huang, M. Momenzadeh, and F. Lombardi, "Defect tolerance of QCA tiles," in Design, Automation and Test in Europe, 2006. DATE'06. Proceedings, 2006, pp. 1-6.
 A. Roohi, H. Khademolhosseini, S. Sayedsalehi, and K. Navi, "A novel architecture for quantum-dot cellular automata multiplexer," International Journal of Computer Science Issues, vol. 8, pp. 55-60, 2011.
 N. Shah, F. Khanday, and J. Iqbal, "Quantum-dot Cellular Automata(QCA) Design of Multi-Function Reversible Logic Gate," Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering, vol. 2, 2012.
 M. Mustafa and M. Beigh, "Design and implementation of quantum cellular automata based novel parity generator and checker circuits with minimum complexity and cell count," 2013.
 A. M. Chabi, S. Sayedsalehi, S. Angizi, and K. Navi, "Efficient QCA exclusive-or and multiplexer circuits based on a nanoelectronic-compatible designing approach," International scholarly research notices, vol. 2014, 2014.
 S. Sheikhfaal, S. Angizi, S. Sarmadi, M. H. Moaiyeri, and S. Sayedsalehi, "Designing efficient QCA logical circuits with power dissipation analysis," Microelectronics Journal, vol. 46, pp. 462-471, 2015.
 M. Mohammadi, S. Gorgin, and M. Mohammadi, "Design of non-restoring divider in quantum-dot cellular automata technology," IET Circuits, Devices & Systems, vol. 11, pp. 135-141, 2017.
 QCADesigner Homepage: http://www.qcadesigner.ca/
 K. Das and D. De, "QCA defect and fault analysis of diverse nanostructure for implementing logic gate," International J. of Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, 2010.