Performance Analysis of High Speed Radix-4 Booth Encoders in CMOS Technology

  • Nader Sharifi Gharabaghlo Urumi Graduate Institute
  • Tohid Moradi Khaneshan Urumi Graduate Institute
Keywords: parallel multiplier, booth encoder, radix-4, high speed

Abstract

This review paper deals with the performance analysis of the best reported works for circuit level realization of radix-4 Booth encoder/decoders. Starting from general concept of Booth algorithm in brief form, the conventional truth table will be discussed. Then the modifications which led to the circuit level implementations along with the complete and comparative analysis for the selected works will be provided. Simulations using HSPICE for TSMC 0.18µm CMOS technology and 1.8V power supply are provided for better comparison of these works. Considering the needed optimizations applied to the mentioned works, it becomes clear that 1.5 XOR gate level delay is reachable for radix-4 Booth encoding scheme while the output waveforms are free of any glitches. The optimized version of Booth encoder was embedded in a 16x16 bit parallel multiplier in which the measured latency after post layout simulations is 1992ps which demonstrates the high potential of chosen radix-4 Booth encoding scheme for utilization in high speed parallel multipliers.

References

[1] Anton Glaser, History of Binary and Other Nondecimal Numeration, Tomash Publishers, 1981.
[2] Ohkubo N., Suzuki M., Shinbo T. et al., “A 4.4 ns CMOS 54 54-b Multiplier Using Pass-Transistor Multiplexer,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 30, Issue 3, pp. 251-257 , 1995.
[3] Abu-Khater I.S., Bellaouar A. and Elmasry, M.I., “Circuit Techniques for CMOS Low-Power High-Performance Multipliers,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 31, Issue 10, pp. 1535-1546 , 1996.
[4] Behrooz Parhami, Computer Arithmetic: Algorithms and Hardware Designs, New York, Oxford University Press, 2000.
[5] Andrew D. Booth, “A signed binary multiplication technique,” The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, Volume IV, Pt. 2, 1951.
[6] C. S. Wallace, “A suggestion for a fast multiplier,” IEEE Trans. on Computers, vol. 13, pp. 14-17, 1964.
[7] L. Dadda, “Some schemes for parallel multipliers,” Alta Frcquetiza, vol. 34, pp. 349-356, 1965.
[8] Wen-Chang Yeh and Chein-Wei Jen, “High-Speed Booth Encoded Parallel Multiplier Design,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 49, No. 7, July 2000.
[9] Whitney J. Townsend, Earl E. Swartzlander Jr., Jacob A. Abraham, “A comparison of Dadda and Wallace multiplier delays,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2003.
[10] D. Naresh and G. Babu Kande, “High Speed Signed multiplier for Digital Signal Processing Applications,” IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE), Vol. 8, Issue 2, pp. 57-61.
[11] K. Yano, T. Yamanaka, T. Nishida, M. Saito, K. Shimohigashi, A. Shimizu, “A 3.8-ns CMOS 16*16-b multiplier using complementary pass-transistor logic,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Volume: 25, Issue: 2, pp. 388-395, Apr 1990.
[12] Hsin-Lei Lin, Chang R.C. and Ming-Tsai Chan, “Design of a Novel Radix-4 Booth Multiplier,” The 2004 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Circuits and Systems, Vol. 2, pp. 837-840, 2004.
[13] Shiann-Rong Kuang, Jiun-Ping Wang, and Cang-Yuan Guo, “Modified Booth Multipliers With a Regular Partial Product Array,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—II: Express Briefs, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 404-408, May 2009.
[14] Kyung-Ju Cho, Kwang-Chul Lee, Jin-Gyun Chung, and Keshab K. Parhi, “Design of Low-Error Fixed-Width Modified Booth Multiplier,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 522-531, May 2004.
[15] A. Fathi, S. Azizian, R. Fathi, H.G. Tamar, “Low latency, glitch-free booth encoder-decoder for high speed multipliers,” IEICE Electronics Express, Vol. 9, No. 16, pp. 1335-1341, 2012.
[16] Ravindra P. Rajput, M.N. Shanmukha Swamy, “High speed Modified Booth Encoder multiplier for signed and unsigned numbers,” 14th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation, pp. 649-654, 2012.
[17] A. Fathi, S. Azizian, Kh. Hadidi, A. Khoei, “Ultra High Speed Modified Booth Encoding Architecture for High Speed Parallel Accumulations,” IEICE transactions on electronics, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 706-709, 2012.
[18] Vincent P. Heuring, Harry F. Jordon, Computer Systems Design and Architecture, Pearson Education, Singapore, 2003.
[19] Sukhmeet Kaur, Suman, Manpreet Signh Manna, “Implementation of Modified Booth Algorithm (Radix 4) and its Comparison with Booth Algorithm (Radix-2),” Advance in Electronic and Electric Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 683-690, 2013.
[20] Sakshi Rajput, Priya Sharma, Gitanjali, and Garima, “High Speed and Reduced Power - Radix-2 Booth Multiplier,” International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management (IJCEM), Vol. 16, Issue 2, pp. 25-31, March 2013.
[21] Ramya Muralidharan, and Chip-Hong Chang, “Radix-8 Booth Encoded Modulo 2n-1 Multipliers With Adaptive Delay for High Dynamic Range Residue Number System,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—I: Regular Papers, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 982-993, May 2011.
[22] Ramya Muralidharan, and Chip-Hong Chang, “Radix-4 and Radix-8 Booth Encoded Multi-Modulus Multipliers,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems—I: Regular Papers, Vol. 60, No. 11, pp. 2940-1952, Nov 2013.
[23] Honglan Jiang, Jie Han, Fei Qiao, and Fabrizio Lombardi, “Approximate Radix-8 Booth Multipliers for Low-Power and High-Performance Operation,” IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 65, No. 8, pp. 2638-2644, Aug 2016.
[24] Chip-Hong Chang, Jiangmin Gu, and Mingyan Zhang, “Ultra Low-Voltage Low-Power CMOS 4-2 and 5-2 Compressors for Fast Arithmetic Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I, Vol. 51, Issue 10, pp. 1985-1997, 2004.
[25] Amir Fathi, Sarkis Azizian, Khayrollah Hadidi, Abdollah Khoei and Amin Chegeni, “CMOS Implementation of a Fast 4-2 Compressor for Parallel Accumulations,” 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), pp. 1476-1479, May 2012.
[26] Amir Fathi, Sarkis Azizian, Khayrollah Hadidi and Abdollah Khoei, “A Novel and Very Fast 4-2 Compressor for High Speed Arithmetic Operations,” IEICE Trans. Electron., Vol. E95-C, No. 4, April 2012.
[27] B. Ramkumar, and Harish M. Kittur, “Low-Power and Area-Efficient Carry Select Adder,” IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 371-375, Feb 2012.
Published
2019-03-12
How to Cite
Sharifi Gharabaghlo, N., & Moradi Khaneshan, T. (2019). Performance Analysis of High Speed Radix-4 Booth Encoders in CMOS Technology. Majlesi Journal of Electrical Engineering, 13(3). Retrieved from http://mjee.iaumajlesi.ac.ir/index/index.php/ee/article/view/2253
Section
Articles